Mount Bromo and Tengger-Caldera
The flat cone of the volcano Mount Bromo rises in the east of Java. It is located in the Tengger Caldera along with three other volcanoes. This multiple caldera has a diameter of 16 km and is 110 meters deep.
The genesis of the Tengger Caldera took place in several stages. First, five stratovolcanoes emerged, all of which collapsed and ended in calderas. Today these calderas overlap.
Since 1767, more than 60 eruptive phases of Mount Bromo have been recorded. Most eruptions are strombolian and occasionally have volcanic or phreatic characteristics.
In June 2004, two people died in an unexpected eruption. The last eruption took place in 2010 and was preceded by a period of increased seismic activity. The first eruption occurred at the end of November, which propelled ash up to 500 m high causing the temporary closure of the Malang Regional Airport. On 20 December the eruption cloud reached a height of 800 meters. The eruption did not end till early summer in 2011.
Mount Bromo was named after the Hindu god Brahma. At the foot of Mount Bromo, a temple was built and is the beginning of a pilgrimage path. Each year, thousands of believers gather on the crater rim on the occasion of the Kasada Festival to make offerings. A staircase with 241 steps leads up to the crater rim; from there you can view a steaming fissure vent.
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