Volcanism: Shapes of Volcanoes
The volcanoes themselves can erupt in a wide variety of ways and take on very different shapes. These shapes are closely linked to the place of occurrence, eruption behaviour and type of lava.
A systematic distinction is made between 10 volcano shapes and structures:
has relatively steep slopes and is built up from alternating layers of loose rock and solid lava flows.
(also called Complex volcano) is a volcano type with several cones and craters.
shield-shaped volcano with flat slopes that is predominantly formed from layers of lava flows.
these are actually only cracks in the ground, on the shoulders of which slight bulges of lava flows form.
a caldera is a large concavity. The majority of the volcano has fallen into the emptied magma chamber after an eruption. A new volcanic cone can grow in the caldera.
these volcanoes are characterised by a double summit, like Vesuvius, in which one summit is the edge of a caldera.
Table Mountain Volcano:
table mountains are flat at the top and are produced by eruptions under the ice.
maars are volcanic pipes and have a reversed shape. They are typical of the "Vulkaneifel" in Germany.
a lava dome is an extremely thick lava flow that piles up to form a dome shape. Domes can arise occur individually, or arise in the summit areas of stratovolcanoes.
are usually of monogenetic origin. Many parasitic cones are cinder cones.
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